Refereed Article Zophiuma lobulata (Hemiptera: Lophopidae) causes Finschhafen disorder of coconut and oil palms
Citation: Gitau, C.W., Gurr, G.M., Dewhurst, C.F., Mitchell, A., Fletcher, M.J., Liefting, L.W. & Cowling, A.. 2011. Zophiuma lobulata (Hemiptera: Lophopidae) causes Finschhafen disorder of coconut and oil palms. Annals of Applied Biology. 158. 139-148.
Finschhafen disorder (FD) affects coconut and oil palms in Papua New Guinea (PNG). It is characterised by yellow-bronzing of fronds which begins at the tips and progresses towards the petiole. Although the planthopper Zophiuma lobulata (Hemiptera: Lophopidae) has been posited as a cause of FD, the basis of the relationship has not been established. Studies conducted previously on FD predate the availability of DNA-based techniques to test for the involvement of plant pathogens such as phytoplasmas that cause yellows-type diseases in many plant taxa and are transmitted by the order of insects to which Z. lobulata belongs. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays found no evidence of phytoplasmas or bacteria-like organisms (BLOs) in tissues of coconut and oil palm symptomatic for FD and from Z. lobulata feeding on these plants. Further studies involved releasing Z. lobulata adults and nymphs onto caged, potted coconut and oil palms and onto palm fronds enclosed in mesh sleeves. In both experiments, chlorotic symptoms on the palms were observed in the presence of Z. lobulata. Insect-free control palms did not exhibit chlorotic symptoms of FD. In the frond sleeve experiment, only the fronds where Z. lobulata fed developed chlorosis indicating that the disorder is not systemic. Unlike most yellows-type diseases associated with Hemiptera, this study indicates that FD is because of a direct feeding effect on palms by Z. lobulata rather than transmission of a pathogen.
Keywords: Cocos nucifera; Elaeis guineensis; Hemiptera;yellows; Zophiuma lobulata