Animal Species:European Carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758

The European Carp is a native of Asia, but extensive introductions have helped to make it the world's most widely distributed freshwater fish. Three strains of European Carp have been introduced to Australia, an ornamental strain near Sydney (1850-60), a Singaporean strain in the Murrumbidgee (1876), and a hybrid "Boolara" strain in Victoria (1961). The latter two strains have interbred and this species is now a major pest in many inland streams in New South Wales.

Standard Common Name

European Carp

Identification

The European Carp can be recognised by its small eyes, thick lips with two barbels at each corner of the mouth, large scales and strongly serrated spines in the dorsal and anal fins. The colour is variable, but often olive green to silvery grey dorsally, fading to silvery yellow on the belly. Small European Carp could be confused with Goldfish, Carassius auratus. The latter however has no barbels on the corners of the mouth.

Size range

Carp are reported to grow to over one metre in length, and 60 kg in weight. In Australia, this species reaches 10 kg, but 4-5 kg is more usual.

Distribution

The European Carp is a native of Asia, but extensive introductions have helped to make it the world's most widely distributed freshwater fish.

In Australia, Carp occur in the Murray-Darling River system of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. The species also occurs in many freshwater streams in coastal New South Wales and Victoria, as well as the brackish lower reaches of some streams and coastal lakes.

The map below shows the Australian distribution of the species based on public sightings and specimens in Australian Museums. Click on the map for detailed information.  Source: Atlas of Living Australia.

Cyprinus carpio

Distribution by collection data

Ozcam map of European Carp specimens in the Australian Museums.

What does this mean?

Feeding and Diet

They are omnivorous feeders, sucking and straining mud from the bottom and sucking insects and plants from the surface. They lack oral teeth, so all the masticating is done by the pharyngeal teeth in the throat. The gut is long (see image). Juvenile European Carp feed mainly on microscopic algae, rotifers and crustaceans.

Economic/social impacts

Three strains of European Carp have been introduced to Australia, an ornamental strain near Sydney (1850-60), a Singaporean strain in the Murrumbidgee (1876), and a hybrid "Boolara" strain in Victoria (1961). The latter two strains have interbred and this species is now a major pest in many inland streams in New South Wales.

Classification

Species:
carpio
Genus:
Cyprinus
Family:
Cyprinidae
Order:
Cypriniformes
Class:
Actinopterygii
Subphylum:
Vertebrata
Phylum:
Chordata
Kingdom:
Animalia

What does this mean?

References

  1. Allen, G.R., Midgley, S.H. & M. Allen. 2002. Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Western Australian Museum. Pp. 394.
  2. Brumley, A.R. in McDowell, R.M. (Ed). 1996. Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Reed Books. Pp. 247.
  3. Koehn, J.D. 2004. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a powerful invader in Australian waterways. Freshwater Biology. 49: 882-894.
  4. Merrick, J.R. & G.E. Schmida. 1984. Australian Freshwater Fishes. Biology and Management. John R. Merrick. Pp. 409.
  5. Schiller, C. 1999. Carping on about research. Fisheries NSW magazine. Winter 1999. EPS Press. Pp. 44.


Mark McGrouther , Collection Manager, Ichthyology
Last Updated:

Tags fishes, ichthyology, European Carp, Cyprinus carpio, Cyprinidae, pest, small eyes, thick lips, barbels, olive green, silvery grey, silvery yellow underside, > 1m, native of Asia, freshwater, rivers,